[PROJECT] livestock breeding/husbandry guide
#1
Guidelines / To Do:
  • Reply if you want to research to fill in any blank information. Please look up and verify any information before replying.
  • Standardize times (e.g., gestation):
    • 0-90 days: Should be listed as days
    • 90 days+: Should be listed as months
  • Create table layout for information (SIE?)
  • Convert researched raw information into templated information, yay!

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Includes ONLY domesticated animals. Feel free to make separate page or pages for other commonly encountered/kept/native/whatever wild companion species!

====== HORSES ======
Gestation: 11 months (320 - 370 days)
Average Number of Young: One, twinning possible (15% probability) but dangerous to the mare
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Mares): One; winter avoided, mid/late spring preferred; breeding can be induced by putting mare "under lights" to cause early receptivity. Strongly recommended every other year to give breaks between foaling
Development:
-- Weaned 4-8 months
-- See Horse Guide for more
Notes:

====== DOMESTIC CATTLE ======
Gestation: 9 months (270 - 295 days)
Average Number of Young: 1-2, 3x possible but VERY rare
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Cows): Cows may be bred once per year, every 13-14 months
Development:
-- Weaning 6-8 months
-- Sexual maturity ~15 months
Notes:

====== DOMESTIC SHEEP ======
Gestation: 5 months
Average Number of Young: 1 - 2 normal, though some breeds yield litters
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Ewes): Year-round, autumn preferred. Ewes are receptive 30 days following lambing in some cases; usually 2-3 months, however
Development:
-- Weaning 4 months
-- Sexual maturity 4-7 months
Notes:

====== DOMESTIC GOATS ======
Gestation: 148 to 152 days
Average Number of Young: Twins; singles and triplets considerably rarer
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Does): Year round; does may be bred twice per year, but once per year is suggested
Development:
-- Weaning 10 weeks (bottle-raised) to 6 months (natural)
-- Sexual maturity at 3-15 months of age, depending on breed and nutritional status.
Notes:

====== DOMESTIC CATS ======
Gestation: 58-65 days
Average Number of Young:
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Queen): Maximum 5 per year; 2-3 far more commonplace
Development:
-- Sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males)
Notes:

====== DONKEYS ======
Gestation: 335-345 days
Average Number of Young: Twinning more commonplace than horses, but single children most common
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Jenny): Less than once per year (3 foalings for every 4 years)
Development:
Notes:

====== PIGS ======
Gestation: 114 days
Average Number of Young: 8-12
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Sow): Twice per year
Notes:

====== BACTRIAN CAMELS ======
Gestation: 12-13 months.
Average Number of Young: One, with rare twins
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Cow): Every other year
Development:
-- Sexual Maturity: The age of sexual maturity varies, but is usually reached at 3 to 5 years.
-- For about 1000 years, though, Bactrian and dromedary camels have been successfully bred to form hybrids which are characterized by either a long and slightly lopsided hump, or two humps - one small and one large. These hybrids are larger and stronger than their parents — they can bear more load and thus are more useful.[17][18] A cross between a first-generation female hybrid and a male Bactrian camel also produces a useful hybrid. Other types of hybrids, though, tend to be bad-tempered or runts.[17]

====== DROMEDARY CAMELS ======
Gestation: 15 months.
Average Number of Young: One
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Cow): Every other year
Development:
-- Nursing and maternal care continue for one to two years.
-- Sexual Maturity: Females reach sexual maturity around three years of age and mate around age four or five. Males begin to mate at around three years of age, too, but still are not sexually mature until six years of age.

====== LLAMAS ======
Gestation: 11-12 months
Average Number of Young: One
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Dam):
Development:
-- Sexual Maturity: Females reach puberty at about 12 months old; males do not become sexually mature until around three years of age.
Notes:
-- Llamas have an unusual reproductive cycle for a large animal. Female llamas are induced ovulators. Through the act of mating, the female releases an egg and is often fertilized on the first attempt. Female llamas do not go into estrus ("heat").

====== ALPACAS ======
Gestation:
Average Number of Young:
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Macho):
Development:
-- Sexual Maturity:

Birds
The animals listed here lay eggs. Often, the animal lays ''many'' eggs -- far more than they can reasonably hope to raise to adulthood. Luperci often take these unfertilized eggs and eat them. After the laying period is over, the female of the species typically "goes broody" and begins to incubate the eggs by sitting on them. The female will typically leave the nest only once per day in order to attend her own needs until the eggs hatch.

====== CHICKENS ======
Incubation: 21 days
Average Number of Young: Up to 300 unfertilized; 1-12 per brood, 3-4 broods per year
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Hens): Approximately 3-4 broods/clutches per year. Hens lay an egg approximately once per 48 hours -- hens gather a clutch (around 12 eggs) and then "go broody" -- i.e., incubate them until they hatch
Development:
-- 30 days with the mother
-- Sexual Maturity at 6-8 months for roosters; 8-12 months for hens
Notes: If hens are kept completely naturally without supplemental light they will lay about 8 months a year.

====== GEESE ======
Incubation: 28-32 days
Average Number of Young: 50 eggs per year, 1-9 per brood
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Goose): 1-2 broods per year. Geese pair-bond for life. However, the gander will mate additional geese “on the side”—how many varies by breed.
-- Sexual Maturity: The gander will likely be ready to breed at a year old, but the goose may not lay until two years old.
Notes:
Articles: <!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://www.themodernhomestead.us/article/Goose+Breeding.html">http://www.themodernhomestead.us/articl ... eding.html</a><!-- m -->

====== DOMESTIC DUCKS ======
Incubation: 25-35 days
Average Number of Young: High producing breeds can lay up to 300 eggs per year; 1-13 ducklings per brood
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Duck): 1 brood per year. Does not form stable pairs.
Development:
-- Pekin ducks grow rapidly, reaching approximately 90% of their adult weight at 7 weeks of age, when properly fed.
Notes: The females of many breeds of domestic ducks are unreliable at sitting their eggs and raising their young. Notable exceptions include the Rouen Duck and especially the Muscovy Duck. It has been a custom on farms for centuries to put duck eggs under broody hens for hatching. However, young ducklings rely on their mothers for a supply of preen oil to make them waterproof; a chicken hen does not make as much preen oil as a female duck. Once the duckling grows its own feathers, it will produce preen oil from the sebaceous gland near the base of its tail.

====== MUSCOVY DUCKS ======
Incubation: 35 days
Average Number of Young: 8-16 eggs
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Duck): 1-2 broods per year. Does not form stable pairs.
Development:
-- Remain with mother 10–12 weeks
Notes:
-- Muscovies and domestic ducks can interbreed, but their offspring are sterile. They were bred often, however, because of their large size, taste and high proportion of lean meat.

====== TURKEYS ======
Gestation: 28 days
Average Number of Young: 11
Breeding Opportunities/Year (Hen): 1-2 broods per year
Notes:

====== HONEY BEE ======
???

Other to be included if people start owning these, let alone breeding them: Guinea Pig, Domestic Pigeon, Yak, Guineafowl, Ferret, Fancy Mouse, Ringneck Dove, Domestic Canary, Fancy Rat, Lab Rat, Hedgehog, Society Finch

More, prob no need to include most as the rare ones or ones from halfway around the world won't ever make it to 'Souls: <!-- m --><a class="postlink" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_domesticated_animals">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_do ... ed_animals</a><!-- m -->
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